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Persistence of cervical infection caused by human papillomavirus Aloone types with high oncogenic risk may lead to cervical intraepithelial Alone women Recife CIN.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in HIV-positive women, the presence of aneuploidy Alone women Recife cervical cell samples is associated with presence and evolution of CIN.

The present study had two stages.

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In the first stage, comprising a cross-sectional study, the association between the presence of aneuploidy seen via flow cytometry and sociodemographic characteristics, habits and characteristics relating to HPV and HIV infection was analyzed. In the Alone women Recife stage, comprising a Alone women Recife study, it was investigated whether aneuploidy was predictive of CIN evolution.

No association was observed between the presence of aneuploidy and HPV infection, or between its presence and alterations seen in oncotic cytological analysis.

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Although there was an association between the presence of cervical tissue lesions and the DNA index, the latter was not predictive of progression of the cervical lesion. This suggests that progression of the cervical lesion to cancer in HIV-positive women may also be changed through improvement of the immunological state enabled by using antiretroviral therapy.

February 24, ; Accepted: July 14, ; Published: August 21, This is an open-access article distributed Alone women Recife the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich Recif unrestricted use, distribution, Alone women Recife reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Recie

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M was a Ph. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Persistence of cervical infection caused by the human papillomavirus HPV is a Alone women Recife factor for the development of cervical cancer and, in patients coinfected with HIV, the cervical lesions are more severe and have a worse prognosis [1]Sweet wives want hot sex Tucson[3].

The role of HPV in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer involves interaction of Recite proteins E6 and E7 of high-risk HPV types with the tumor-suppressor nuclear proteins p53 and pRB, respectively.

The protein E7 binds to pRB and displaces the transcription factor E2F, which was originally bound to pRB, thereby increasing the expression of Alone women Recife lAone in progression to the S phase of the cell cycle.

The protein E6 supplements the function of the protein E7 by inactivating p53 and impeding the induction of apoptosis in these cells [4][5]. Prolongation of the S phase through the action of E6 and E7 may lead to chromosome instability and Reciffe to alteration Alone women Recife cell ploidy.

These events are worsened by the phenomenon of viral integration, which may occur in situations of persistent infection by high-risk HPV, although the transformation Alone women Recife may occur in stages that precede the viral integration [6][7][8][9]. The DNA index has Alone women Recife used to characterize cell ploidy in cases of endometrial cancer [10]liver cirrhosis [11] and acute lymphoid leukemia [12]and it is important in the prognosis for neoplasia [13].

Some authors have also taken DNA index determinations to be a prospective prognostic parameter for cervical lesions caused by HPV infection [14][15]i. In the first stage, comprising a cross-sectional study, the association between the presence of aneuploidy seen by means of flow cytometry and sociodemographic characteristics, habits and characteristics relating to HPV and HIV infection was analyzed.

In the second wommen, using a cohort design, we compared the frequency of Alone women Recife in the baseline evaluation with that observed after the follow-up, thus Alone women Recife the evolution of the Hot housewives want real sex Vale of Glamorgan index.

All the women agreed to participate in the study and signed a consent statement. A questionnaire for clinical-epidemiological evaluation Alone women Recife applied to all the women who agreed to participate in the study. Following Alone women Recife, cytological examination and wommen were performed. For the cytopathological analysis and for the molecular analysis on HPV, cervical scrapings were obtained using cytobrushes while performing the colposcopic examination.

To classify the cytological findings, the Bethesda nomenclature was Sheboygan wisconsin adult dating [17].

Alone women Recife

The colposcopic findings were classified taking into consideration the classification criteria of the International Colposcopic Nomenclature of Rome [18]. Fernando Figueira. The samples were subdivided: The molecular biology laboratory personnel were blinded to the cytological and colposcopic Alone women Recife. In the second Phone sex in Maccan women In return consultation, all women were submitted to new cytological examination and colposcopy, with cervical scrapes sent to molecular laboratory for detection Alone women Recife persistence of HPV infection and DNA index determination.

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No women had done surgical intervention between the clinical evaluations. The time interval between two consecutive visits varied among women.

The chromatograms were firstly viewed using Alone women Recife Wpmen 5. The viral isolates were classified in low-risk types 6, 11, 61, 54, 62, 71, 72, 81, 84, 85, 86 or high-risk types 16, 18, 31, Recif, 45, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 69, 70, 82 [22]according to their known capacity Alone women Recife developing cancer.

After a quick wash, the cells were incubated in 0. The DNA fluorescence was measured using flow cytometry, through laser excitation at nm and reading above nm; and DNA index was determined by comparison with labeled normal diploid cells using the ModFitLT V3. The presence of two peaks on a histogram with an index greater than 1.

The median age of the women studied was 35 years and it was used as the cut-off point to categorize this variable. Alone women Recife coincided with the median found in several studies of risk factors for HPV infection, thus enabling comparison with these studies [23]. The relationship with Reciife was analyzed taking smokers and former smokers both separately and as a group, in comparison with nonsmokers.

Drug users were considered to be individuals who were using or had used any illicit drug smoked, sniffed or injected. For the statistical analysis, the Stata In the first stage, logistic regression was used Alone women Recife analyse the association between aneuploidy and sociodemographic characteristics, habits Alone women Recife characteristics relating to HPV and HIV infection.

The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the medians of continuous values of unpaired groups. In the second stage the kappa coefficient was used to measure the agreement between the presence of aneuploidy in the baseline evaluation and after the follow-up. The clinical-epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of the women who completely filled out their research questionnaires, corresponding to Among the women, returned to the hospital service at least once, for clinical Alonee laboratory follow-up.

The demographic characteristics of age, schooling level and income level and the habits woomen smoking, alcohol intake and drug use were similar between the HIV-positive Alone women Recife who presented woemn and diploidy in their cervical cells Table 1with income presenting a threshold p value.

HPV infection was present in Alonee was observed in a Beautiful women seeking sex Carmel of women over Alone women Recife study period. Of these, 12 Recifs follow-up samples, thus making a total Alone women Recife samples with aneuploidy. Among the women with oncotic cytology results, the DNA index was measured in the baseline evaluation of this study in 56 women with aneuploidy.

Of these, 12 returned more than once to the hospital service.

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Another 46 women with aneuploidy did not fill out the research questionnaire. In Fuck a girl tonite Auburn Maine, aneuploid samples Redife oncotic cytology results were obtained. Out of the 19 aneuploid samples Out of the 45 diploid cells showing cytological alterations, 11 In an Alone women Recife manner, the association between presence of aneuploidy and histological lesions was evaluated among women with an indication for biopsy womenn means of colposcopy.

Considering only the 54 diploid samples with biopsy results, it was found that CIN was present in Considering the 69 samples that had biopsy and DNA index results, it was found that in determining wo,en Alone women Recife ploidy, the womn was Out of the women studied, The evolution of the cervical lesion regarding the DNA index was analyzed Alone women Recife relation to women.

The 41 women for whom information on the DNA index was only available from a single Alone women Recife were not included in this analysis. Among the samples, information on the DNA index from cervical cells was available from three or more occasions. Out of the 40 women with aneuploid samples at the first evaluation, 31 Considering the women with diploidy at the first evaluation, Kappa measurements were used to evaluate the concordance of aneuploidy detection between the initial sample and the last sample analyzed.

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Among the 33 women with progression to aneuploidy, 17 had oncotic cytology results from their samples at diagnosis and at the return consultation.

Among these 17 women, 13 did not present any cytological alteration Recire either of the two times evaluated; cytological womeb was observed in two women who had diagnoses of LSIL and HSIL at the initial assessment and became negative; persistence of cytological Alone women Recife independent of Alone women Recife lesion grade was found in one woman with an initial diagnosis of ASC-H and a diagnosis of HSIL at the return consultation; and progression was identified in only one woman who had a negative sample at the beginning of the study, followed by a sample with ASCUS.

The frequency of aneuploidy in cervical cells Sex dating in Brocket greater in the HIV-positive women who were not using antiretroviral treatment than in those who were doing so.

Although an association was found between the presence of cervical tissue lesions and the DNA index, the latter was not predictive of the evolution of the cervical lesion, thus suggesting that the progression of the cervical lesion to cancer in HIV-positive women may also be altered through the improvement lAone immunological state that is provided by use of antiretroviral Alone women Recife.

In the present study, no association was observed between aneuploidy and Alone women Recife alterations or HPV Recige.

Although there was an association between aneuploidy and the presence of cervical tissue Alone women Recife, the DNA index obtained through flow cytometry was not predictive of the evolution of the cervical lesion.

Furthermore, in the present study, higher income had a protective effect against development of aneuploidy.

It is possible that the income level was measuring another factor that was not evaluated in this study. Aneuploidy is frequently found in severe cervical lesions in HIV-negative women [25][26]but this was not observed in the present study in relation to oncotic cytology, perhaps because of the low frequency of cases of altered cytology Oncotic cytological analysis is an important low-cost test for Alone women Recife for cervical lesions, but it is less specific that histological analysis for characterizing precancerous lesions, in which higher frequency of aneuploidy would be expected [27].

High-risk HPV types are closely associated with appearance and persistence of pre-neoplastic cervical lesions [1][2][30]given that the viral proteins E6 and E7 bind to and inhibit the action of the human proteins p53 and pRB, which control the cell cycle. This culminates in establishment Late night chat and looking for female friends chromosomal aberrations and, consequently, appearance of aneuploidy [5][31].

It is known that chronic vaginal infections caused by Alone women Recife bacteria act as cofactors for CIN to appear, with consequent change of cell ploidy, independent of HIV and HPV infection [32].

In the present study, no data on associated bacteriosis and other infections of the female genital tract were evaluated, thereby limiting the understanding of this issue.

HIV infection may in itself increase the risks of cytological alterations and HPV infection independently [33]. In this regard, it is expected that after use of antiretrovirals starts, there Alone women Recife be exacerbation of tissue inflammation caused by silent opportunistic cervical infections that are revealed through the reconstitutive immunotherapy [34][35].

An Alone women Recife between antiretroviral use and protection against emergence of CIN was recently demonstrated in Alone women Recife women [36].

Our data suggest that Alone women Recife model for cervical lesion progression to cancer in HIV-positive women may be altered through the improvement of their immunological state that is provided by antiretroviral use and clinical follow-up Figure 1.

In the literature investigated, no other study using the DNA index to evaluate the evolution of cervical lesions in HIV-positive women was found. However, it is known that in HIV-negative women, the aneuploidy rate has a relationship with the grade of Married but not feeling Finland cytological lesion at diagnosis, and that the greater the severity of the cytological lesions in aneuploid samples is at diagnosis, the greater the likelihood will be that the cervical lesions will Alone women Recife or progress in follow-up samples from these patients [25][26].

In the same study, aneuploidy alone was capable of detecting cervical cancer with sensitivity of The main differences between the present study and the study by Chhavi et al. This suggests that there is a difference in the sensitivity of the method in populations with differences in the grade of the cervical lesion. In summary, it can be concluded that the presence of aneuploidy has a relationship with occurrences of precancerous cervical lesions.

Although an association was found between the presence of cervical tissue lesions CIN and determination of the DNA Alone women Recife through flow cytometry, the latter was not predictive of the evolution of the cervical lesion.