State dependent learning effects have been widely studied in a variety of drugs of abuse. However, they have yet to be studied in relation to sexual motivation. The current Wimen investigated state-dependent learning effects of cocaine in male Japanese Women quail sex Coturnix japonica using a sexual conditioning paradigm.
In the test chamber, sexual conditioning trials consisted of presentation of a light conditioned Women quail sex CS followed by sexual reinforcement.
Women quail sex For the latter condition, sexual conditioning persisted from cocaine training to the saline test. The findings suggest that state dependent effects may alter sexual motivation and that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may increase sexual motivation which may, in turn, may lead to high risk sexual activities. An sez explanation for the findings is also discussed. State-dependent learning occurs when learned information is better recalled when an Womej is in the same state of consciousness as when the memory was formed [ 1 ].
In a classic experiment Women seeking real sex Franklin Texas Goodwin and colleagues Women quail sex 2 ], male volunteers were asked to perform various memory tasks while under the influence of alcohol or while sober.
Despite this decline in cocaine use, nationally, the number of women cocaine users has increased and the gender gap continues to narrow (SAMHSA, ). Here the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner and an unfamiliar male avoids the former if he engaged in relatively many . Here we are talking about the differences between male and female quail of Pharaoh or Japanese quail. Although the differences in gender are generally the .
The following day, they were retested under similar or Women quail sex conditions. The results indicated that subjects who learned the material while intoxicated had difficulty recalling the task in a sober state.
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Conversely, subjects who were tested and retested under the influence performed as well as subjects who were tested and retested under sober conditions [ 2 ]. Thus, in accordance with state-dependent learning, memories appear to be best recalled in the same physiological state in which they were encoded.
State-dependent learning has been observed for several addictive drugs including ethanol [ 2345 ], pentobarbital [ 2 ], morphine [ 67 Women quail sex, 89 ] methylphenidate [ 10 ], and amphetamine [ Women quail sex ]. Romieu and colleagues [ 12 ] used a modified passive avoidance task and found that relatively low doses 0. Low doses were used because they did not affect acquisition or consolidation of the memory.
In addition, it was found that the cocaine-induced state-dependent effect could be altered by GABA and opioid receptor modulation [ 12 ]. Several studies have shown that repeated pre-exposure to addictive drugs may facilitate sex seeking behavior [ 13 Women quail sex, 141516 ]. Levens and Akins [ 17 ] conducted an experiment to determine whether repeated preexposure to cocaine would increase sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail. After a 10 day withdrawal period, male quail received sexual conditioning trials that consisted of the presentation of an arbitrary conditioned stimulus CS followed by sexual reinforcement.
Males that received repeated administration of cocaine demonstrated more conditioned approach behavior to the CS compared to Women quail sex that received repeated Housewives want real sex MD Detour 21725 of saline. The findings and others like it [e. The current research used a well-studied Pavlovian sexual conditioning paradigm to test for state-dependent effects Women quail sex cocaine in male Japanese quail.
In the Pavlovian sexual conditioning paradigm, Women quail sex quail are presented with a light CS and this is followed by a mating opportunity with a receptive female quail [ 18 ]. Males learn that the CS predicts a mating opportunity and as such, they approach and remain near the CS.
Jan 1, After a 10 day withdrawal period, male quail received sexual A female quail was placed in the home cage of each male for 5 min. Only males. May 9, In Experiment 1, male quail were exposed to saline or to cocaine (5, 10, . Thirty- two age-matched sexually mature female quail were used as. Here the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner and an unfamiliar male avoids the former if he engaged in relatively many .
This sexually conditioned approach behavior is viewed as an index of sexual motivation. As described above, pre-exposure to chronic cocaine has been shown to enhance this sexually conditioned approach behavior [ 1719 ]. Thus, cocaine may Women quail sex only facilitate sexual conditioning but it may also function as a discriminative cue or occasion setter.
Two groups will have quall shift in drug state from training to testing while two groups will remain in the same state during training and testing. A state-dependent account would predict that sexually Women quail sex approach behavior would be attenuated in groups that receive a shift in drug state relative to those that do not receive a shift [ 212223 ].
An equal number of female quail were used as copulation partners.
Eggs were supplied by Northwest Gamebirds Kennewick, WA and quail chicks were Women quail sex and then raised in mixed-sex groups until approximately 28 days of age. At 28 days of age, male quail were housed individually and female Women quail sex were group housed Womeen wire mesh cages supplied by GQF Manufacturing, Savannah, GA. Female quail were housed individually when selected for the experiment.
Cocaine induces state-dependent learning of sexual conditioning in male Japanese quail
Subjects were raised in long-daylight 16L: Male quail were selected as subjects on the basis of a pretest for copulation. A female quail was placed in the home Women quail sex of each male for 5 min. Only males that successfully copulated within 5 minutes were used in the experiment.
Male quail are not likely to copulate with a female bird if they have not done so within 5 minutes [ 25 ]. Female quail were assigned to male quail on a rotation basis across acquisition trials so that male quail were never paired with the same female quail more than once.
All of the experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and were conducted under the guidelines of the Division of Womem Animal Research at Women quail sex University Indian swingers Toporovtse Kentucky.
Six large Plexiglas test chambers The side walls of the chambers were covered with white paper and the floors Women quail sex the chambers were covered with white Womeb paper.
A smaller Plexiglas side cage A door connecting the test chamber and the side cage allowed male quail to access the female's side cage. The door Women quail sex covered with white paper so that males and females could not see each other unless the door was opened.
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A 25w red light The CS zone was marked on the corrugated floor Drug was injected 15 min prior to testing. The training phase consisted of fourteen trials, one per day, with each subject receiving the same Women quail sex throughout training.
Males were then aex back in their home cage for 15 min. After the 15 min, they were transported to the test room and placed in the test chamber. Women quail sex received a 30 sec pre-CS period, after which the CS light was illuminated for 30 sec quaiil was then turned off. Subsequently, the door to the female's side cage was raised and males were allowed to enter the side cage for a copulatory opportunity with a female quail for 5 min.
The amount of time sec Women quail sex quail spent in the CS zone during Women quail sex CS light presentation was recorded. Approach behavior time Wo,en CS zone was measured after both feet crossed into the CS zone. The training phase was followed by a Wojen withdrawal period. During Women quail sex phase, quail remained in their home cage and did not receive drug or saline.
Following a day withdrawal period, quail were given a state-dependent test. During the test, half of the male quail that received repeated cocaine administration during the training phase were Married pussy molalla or.
Swinging. with saline and half of the males that received repeated administration qual saline during training were injected with cocaine.
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The other half of the male quail that received repeated cocaine administration during the training phase were injected with cocaine Women quail sex the other half of the males that received repeated administration of saline during training were injected with saline.
The state-dependent test consisted of one test and was conducted on a single day. Pair-wise comparisons were conducted with Quzil LSD test Women quail sex appropriate.
Here we are talking about the differences between male and female quail of Pharaoh or Japanese quail. Although the differences in gender are generally the . May 9, In Experiment 1, male quail were exposed to saline or to cocaine (5, 10, . Thirty- two age-matched sexually mature female quail were used as. Jan 1, After a 10 day withdrawal period, male quail received sexual A female quail was placed in the home cage of each male for 5 min. Only males.
For all analyses, 0. Figure 1A shows the amount of time sec spent near the CS that predicted a female across training trials for males that received either cocaine or saline. Male quail that received cocaine spent significantly more time near the CS that predicted a female, overall and across training Women quail sex, compared to males that received saline.
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Time spent near the CS sec for male quail that received chronic cocaine or saline across training trials. The present sez indicate that cocaine may induce state-dependent learning. The findings support those of Romeiu and colleagues [ 12 ] in which they found that relatively lower doses of cocaine 0.
This dose has also been shown to facilitate sexual conditioning and performance Looking for San Antonio read 17 ] and function as a discriminative interoceptive stimulus for sexual reinforcement [ 20 ]. Previous studies indicate qauil chronic pre-exposure to cocaine facilitates sexual conditioning [ 171920 ] and that this Women quail sex effect persists during extinction [unpublished data].
Therefore, it was not surprising that the shift from a cocaine training state to a saline test quali one administration of saline did not decrease responding. We have chosen to interpret the current findings as a state dependent effect. However, at least one other explanation is possible.
In the current experiment, administration quali drug in the saline-trained birds as well as the Women quail sex of drug Women quail sex the drug-trained birds may have represented a novel state. Birds have a neophobic nature and fear has been shown to reduce exploration and cause behavioral inhibition in domestic Women quail sex [ 272829 ].
While state-dependent learning may be one explanation for the present findings, it is equally likely that quail perceived the change in drug state as a novel stimulus thereby decreasing exploration in the test chamber or inducing a competing response. The current study is the first to demonstrate cocaine-induced state-dependent learning in a sexual behavior paradigm.
The srx contribute to our understanding of how interoceptive drug Women quail sex may function to enhance learning and motivation and ultimately lead to high risk sexual activities. In humans, repeated cocaine use has been associated with high risk sexual activities, including sex with multiple partners and unprotected sex [ 303132 ].
From a state-dependent learning viewpoint, auail are best recalled in the same physiological state in which they were encoded [ 33 ]. The Women quail sex findings suggest that repeated exposure to cocaine during sexual activity may later increase sexual motivation and this may Women quail sex turn, Smart and attractive seeking long term to high risk sexual quuail. The authors would like to thank Luke Cornett and B.Women Want Real Sex Hockingport Ohio
Levi Bolin for their help with data collection, animal care, and Women quail sex support. We would also like to thank reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript.
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